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Creation Calendar

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Isaiah 53 from the Aleppo Codex




Who has believed Our report? And to whom has the arm of יהוה been revealed? For He comes up as a tender plant before Him, and as a Root out of a dry ground. He has no form, nor honor, when we observe Him, nor beauty, that we should desire Him. He was despised, and rejected by men, a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief. And as one hiding His countenance from us, He was despised, and we did not esteem Him. Surely He has borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows, yet we esteemed Him stricken, smitten by Elohim, and afflicted. And He was pierced for our transgressions, bruised for our iniquities, the punishment that brought us peace was upon Him, and by His stripes we are healed. All we like sheep have gone astray, we have turned each to his own way, and יהוה has laid on Him את the punishment of us all. He was oppressed and He was afflicted, yet He did not open His mouth. He was led as a Lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before its shearers is silent, He did not open His mouth. By oppression and trial was taken away, and who can speak of את His descendants? For He was cut off from the land of the living, for the transgressions of My people He was stricken. And He made His grave with את the wicked, and with את the rich in His death, because He had done no violence, nor was any deceit in His mouth. Yet it pleased יהוה to bruise Him and to cause Him to suffer, and though יהוה makes His life an offering for sin, He will see His offspring and prolong His days, and the will of יהוה will prosper in His hand. He shall see the labor of His soul, and be satisfied. By His knowledge My righteous Servant shall justify many, for He shall bear their iniquities. Therefore I will give Him a portion with the great, and shall divide את the spoil with the strong, because He poured out His soul even to death, and was numbered with את the transgressors, and He bore the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors.

Determining the Hebrew Hour

A Hebrew Hour is defined as 1/12 of the time between sunset and sunrise, or 1/12 of the time between sunrise and sunset. The only Scriptural reference to there being 12 Hebrew Hours in a Hebrew Day is found in John 11:9 where  יהושע the Messiah asked a famous question, "Are there not 12 hours in a day?" The diagram below is a working timepiece where the sun's position indicates the current Hebrew Hour at Jerusalem. One Hebrew Hour ends and another begins when the center of the sun crosses an hour line.

Live Jerusalem Time

Mid

Day

1st
Hour

2nd
Hour

3rd
Hour

4th
Hour

5th
Hour

6th
Hour

7th
Hour

8th
Hour

9th
Hour

10th
Hour

11th
Hour

12th
Hour

Mid

Night

1st
Hour

2nd
Hour

3rd
Hour

4th
Hour

5th
Hour

6th
Hour

7th
Hour

8th
Hour

9th
Hour

10th
Hour

11th
Hour

12th
Hour

First
Watch

Second
Watch

Third
Watch

Fourth
Watch

x

until next Hebrew Hour

y

z

This live time clock shows the current Scriptural Hebrew Hour in Jerusalem based on the instantaneous position of the sun as it would be seen there. The dark area represents Night, and the light area represents Day. As the sun's disk moves in a clockwise motion, the current Hebrew Hour is indicated. One Hebrew Hour ends and another Hebrew Hour begins at the moment the center of the sun's disk crosses an hour line. The Night Watches for the Age of the Messiah are also shown.

The Torah, the Prophets and the Writings do not number specific Hebrew Hours. Only the Messianic Scriptures number specific Hebrew Hours in Matthew, Mark, Luke and Acts. The third hour of the day is referred to in Matthew 20:3-4, Mark 15:25 and Acts 2:15. The third hour of the night is referred to in Acts 23:23-24. The sixth hour of the day is referred to in Matthew 20:5, 27:45, Mark 15:33, Luke 23:44 and Acts 10:9. The ninth hour of the day is referred to in Matthew 20:5, 27:45, 27:46, Mark 15:33, 15:34, Luke 23:44, Acts 3:1, Acts 10:3 and Acts 10:30-31. The eleventh hour of the day is referred to in Matthew 20:6 and Matthew 20:9.

A Typical Hebrew Day

One Hebrew Day

Genesis 1:5 Elohim called the light Day and the darkness He called Night.
And there was Evening and there was Morning - Day One.

12 Hours

John 11:9 Are there not
12 hours in a day?

First
Watch

Second
Watch

Third
Watch

Fourth
Watch

Sunset

Evening

"Twinkling of an eye"
Night Begins

Sunrise

Morning

Sunset

Evening

Evening
Twilight

"Twinkling of an eye"
Night Begins

Morning
Twilight

Between the
Evenings

בין הערבים

(Evening Twilight)

1

1

2

2

3

3

4

4

5

5

6

6

7

7

8

8

9

9

10

10

11

11

12

12

Mid-day

Hebrew Day Hours

Mid-night

Hebrew Night Hours

A Hebrew Day consists of 12 Hebrew Night Hours and 12 Hebrew Day Hours. The midpoint of the 12 Hebrew Night Hours is called Mid-night. The moment of Mid-night occurs exactly halfway between sunset and sunrise separating the sixth and seventh Hebrew Night Hours. The midpoint of the 12 Hebrew Day Hours is called Mid-day. The moment of Mid-day occurs exactly halfway between sunrise and sunset separating the sixth and seventh Hebrew Day Hours. An easy way to measure Day Hours is by using an equiangular sundial marked with 12 divisions.

In the Creation Calendar, Hebrew Hours begin at sunrise and sunset. A Hebrew Hour occurring between sunset and sunrise is called a Hebrew Night Hour. A Hebrew Hour occurring between sunrise and sunset is called a Hebrew Day Hour. Sunset occurs and the First Watch begins exactly at the beginning of the first Hebrew Night Hour. The Second Watch begins exactly at the beginning of the fourth Hebrew Night Hour. Mid-night occurs and the Third Watch begins exactly at the beginning of the seventh Hebrew Night Hour. The Fourth Watch begins exactly at the beginning of the tenth Hebrew Night Hour, and ends at sunrise at the end of the twelfth Hebrew Night Hour. Sunrise is always exactly at the beginning of the first Hebrew Day Hour. Mid-day occurs exactly at the end of the sixth Hebrew Day Hour. Sunset occurs exactly at the end of the twelfth Hebrew Day Hour.

The duration of a Hebrew Hour varies with the season. A Hebrew Day Hour is shorter in duration during winter when a Hebrew Night Hour is longer in duration. A Hebrew Day Hour is longer in duration during summer when a Hebrew Night Hour is shorter in duration.

A Short Hebrew Day in Winter

One Hebrew Day

First
Watch

Second
Watch

Third
Watch

Fourth
Watch

12 Hours

Sunset

Evening

Sunrise

Morning

Sunset

Evening

1

1

2

2

3

3

4

4

5

5

6

6

7

7

8

8

9

9

10

10

11

11

12

12

Mid-day

Hebrew Day Hours

Mid-night

Hebrew Night Hours

In this diagram, a Hebrew Day Hour is shorter in duration than a Hebrew Night Hour. This occurs in winter. The daytime hours are the shortest on the day of the winter solstice.

A Long Hebrew Day in Summer

One Hebrew Day

First
Watch

Second
Watch

Third
Watch

Fourth
Watch

12 Hours

Sunset

Evening

Sunrise

Morning

Sunset

Evening

1

1

2

2

3

3

4

4

5

5

6

6

7

7

8

8

9

9

10

10

11

11

12

12

Mid-day

Hebrew Day Hours

Mid-night

Hebrew Night Hours

In this diagram, a Hebrew Day Hour is longer in duration than a Hebrew Night Hour. This occurs in summer. The daytime hours are the longest on the day of the summer solstice.

In contrast to Matthew, Mark, Luke and Acts, the book of John, as it now exists in the Greek manuscripts, numbers hours from midnight as the Romans did. Pilate questioned  יהושע the Messiah at the sixth hour Roman reckoning according to John 19:14 which is the twelfth Hebrew Night Hour.  יהושע the Messiah sat at Jacob's well at Sychar at the sixth hour Roman reckoning after a tiresome journey according to John 4:6 which is the twelfth Hebrew Day Hour. A nobleman travelled the better part of a day from Cana to Capernaum and met  יהושע the Messiah at the seventh hour Roman reckoning according to in John 4:52 which is the first Hebrew Night Hour. The disciples came to the place  יהושע the Messiah was staying at the tenth hour Roman reckoning and stayed with Him for the rest of that day according to John 1:39. The tenth hour Roman reckoning is the fourth Hebrew Day Hour.

Although some have claimed there is no historical proof that the Romans counted the hours from midnight, such proof indeed exists. According to Gaius Plinius Secundus who lived between 23 C.E. and 79 C.E., the Roman authorities counted civil hours from midnight.

Pliny the Elder, Natural History 2:77: "The very day itself men have observed in various manners. The Babylonians count the period between the two sunrises, the Athenians that between two sunsets, the Umbrians from midday to midday, the common people everywhere from dawn to dark, the Roman priests and the authorities who fix the civil day, and also the Egyptians and Hipparchus, the period from midnight to midnight."

Today, the Gregorian Calendar counts civil hours from midnight similar to the way the Romans did.


The Watches of the Night

In the Age of Torah the time between sunset and sunrise was divided into three watches. The evening watch is alluded to by Moses in Psalms 90:4.

Psalms 90:4 For a thousand years in Your sight are as one day when it is past, as a watch in the night [the evening watch].

This verse alludes to the fact that one Hebrew Day is past at the moment of sunset when the evening watch begins. It also alludes to the fact that one millennium ends and another millennium begins at sunset when the evening watch begins. The middle watch of the night is mentioned once in Judges 7:19. The morning watch is referred to by Moses in Exodus 14:24 and is also mentioned in 1 Samuel 11:11.

By the time of the Age of the Messiah, the time between sunset and sunrise was divided into four watches. The second watch and third watch are each mentioned once in Luke 12:38. The fourth watch is mentioned once in Matthew 14:25 and once in Mark 6:48 as the time when the Messiah walked on the water.

Watches During the Ages

One Hebrew Day

Genesis 1:5 Elohim called the light Day and the darkness He called Night.
And there was Evening and there was Morning - Day One.

12 Hours

John 11:9 Are there not
12 hours in a day?

During the Age of Instruction

Evening
Watch

Middle
Watch

Morning
Watch

First
Watch

Second
Watch

Third
Watch

Fourth
Watch

During the Age of the Messiah

Sunset

Evening

"Twinkling of an eye"
Night Begins

Sunrise

Morning

Sunset

Evening

Evening
Twilight

"Twinkling of an eye"
Night Begins

Morning
Twilight

Between the
Evenings

בין הערבים

(Evening Twilight)

1

1

2

2

3

3

4

4

5

5

6

6

7

7

8

8

9

9

10

10

11

11

12

12

Mid-day

Hebrew Day Hours

Mid-night

Hebrew Night Hours

There are always 12 Hebrew Night Hours and 12 Hebrew Day Hours in a Hebrew Day. This diagram represents a typical Hebrew Day in which the duration of both the nighttime and the daytime hours are about the same. This occurs twice a year around the time of the fall equinox and spring equinox.

There are always exactly 24 Hebrew Hours between two sunsets. However, the duration of time between two sunsets measured in civil hours, minutes and seconds changes slightly throughout the year. The curve on the graph below represents the time difference in seconds between 24 civil hours and 24 Hebrew Hours throughout the year at Jerusalem. The blue area represents the period when 24 Hebrew Hours are slightly longer in duration than 24 civil hours. The purple area represents the period when 24 Hebrew Hours are slightly shorter in duration than 24 civil hours. The duration of 24 Hebrew Hours on the Hebrew Day of the spring equinox is 24:00:41 or 41 seconds longer than 24 civil hours. The duration of 24 Hebrew Hours on the Hebrew Day of the fall equinox is 23:58:41 or 79 seconds less than 24 civil hours. Notice there is little correlation between the shape of the time variation curve and the seasonal solstices and equinoxes.

The Duration of a Hebrew Day

0
Days

50
Days

100
Days

150
Days

200
Days

250
Days

300
Days

350
Days

+100 Seconds

+50 Seconds

Time Difference in
seconds between
a Hebrew Day of
24 Hebrew Hours
and 24 civil hours

0 Seconds

-50 Seconds

-100 Seconds

winter
solstice

Winter

spring
equinox

Spring

summer
solstice

Summer

fall
equinox

Fall

A Hebrew Day always has exactly 24 Hebrew Hours. A civil day consists of 24 civil hours. However, a Hebrew Day does not always equal 24 civil hours. Since a Hebrew Day is the time from one sunset to the next, its duration will differ from 24 civil hours due to the civil time difference between the two sunset times. The curve on this graph represents the time difference in seconds between a Hebrew Day of 24 Hebrew Hours and a civil day of 24 civil hours throughout the year at Jerusalem.

Accuracy of Sunrise and Sunset Times

Calculations for sunrise and sunset times on torahcalendar.com are based upon certain assumptions made in modeling atmospheric refraction. These assumptions include using the latitude, longitude and elevation of the Temple Mount located in Jerusalem, using a yearly average barometric pressure of 1010 millibars, and using a yearly average air temperature of 19.4°C (66.9°F). Therefore, all times displayed relating to sunrise or sunset which are shown with a resolution in seconds, are determined based upon these atmospheric refraction modeling assumptions.

As Jean Meeus states in Astronomical Algorithms:

"A change of temperature from winter to summer can shift the times of sunrise and sunset by about 20 seconds in mid-northern and mid-southern latitudes. Similarly, observing sunrise or sunset over a range of barometric pressures leads to a variation of a dozen seconds in time."
Jean Meeus, Astronomical Algorithms, Second Edition, p.101.

"The effect of [atmospheric] refraction increases when the pressure increases or when the [air] temperature decreases." Jean Meeus, Astronomical Algorithms, Second Edition, p.106.

"Near the horizon unpredictable disturbances of the atmosphere become rather important. According to investigations by Schaefer and Liller, the refraction at the horizon fluctuates by 0.3° around a mean value [34 minutes of arc] normally, and in some cases apparently much more ... it should be mentioned here that giving rising or setting times of a celestial body more accurately than to the nearest minute makes no sense." Jean Meeus, Astronomical Algorithms, Second Edition, p.107.

For these reasons, actual observed sunrise and sunset times at Jerusalem may differ by as much as one minute due to daily variations in temperature and barometric pressure. In winter when the temperature is colder, the actual sunrise may occur earlier than projected times. Also, on a day when the barometric pressure is higher, sunrise may occur earlier. Cold temperature and high barometric pressure combined work cumulatively in causing the sunrise to occur earlier than the projected times. Torahcalendar.com only displays sunrise and sunset times to the nearest second to better illustrate the passage of time while providing a near real-time simulation of these events.

John 5:28-29

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