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Creation Calendar

The Creation Calendar shows Hebrew
Months which begin at each new moon.
Enter the Gregorian Calendar date to see
the corresponding Hebrew Month, OR
a Hebrew Month and Gregorian year.

 

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Isaiah 53 from the Aleppo Codex

The Calendar Restoration Project

The Creation Calendar at TorahCalendar.com is a faithful restoration of the original calendar used since creation. Research derived from a combination of sources including the Scriptures, ancient historical records and advanced lunar and planetary motion theories has culminated in the restoration of the Creation Calendar. One of the purposes of this effort has been the restoration of the Scriptural reckoning of hours, days, months and years based on the positioning of the earth, moon and sun as was done in ancient times.

An Electronic Eyewitness

Scientific advancements in the field of celestial mechanics have increased rapidly since the mid 1980's. For decades, advanced technology has allowed scientists to characterize and understand the complex motions of the moon and its distance from the earth. As a result, powerful analytical theories for predicting the positions of the moon and the planets have emerged. Considering the tremendous advancements in computing power in recent years, the time has finally arrived when it is possible to precisely determine the positions of the sun, moon and earth for any point in time.

Lunar and solar position computations used in restoring the Creation Calendar at TorahCalendar.com are obtained from a C program component provided by Stephen L. Moshier. This program adjusts the ELP2000-85 analytical lunar theory of Chapront-Touze and Chapront to fit the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's DE404 long ephemeris on the interval from 3000 B.C.E. to 3000 C.E. The precision of the lunar ephemeris in the Creation Calendar computes timing for the exact position of the moon accurate to within ±30 minutes at 4000 B.C.E.

The Creation Calendar program places Day 15 of Month 1 on or after the Hebrew Day of the spring equinox. The new moon is determined by the criteria of the first possible, visible, lunar crescent as seen from Jerusalem, assuming ideal viewing conditions. This criteria was used by Israel when Jerusalem became its capital. The Creation Calendar was still used during the Second Temple period during the time of  יהושע the Messiah.

The Creation Calendar, first used by Adam and Hawah at the beginning of creation, was largely abandoned after the Judeans were dispersed after the failed Bar Kokhba revolt in Year 18 of Hadrian in 134 C.E. It was eventually replaced by the modern Rabbinic Calendar in 359 C.E. by Hillel II during the reign of the Roman Emperor Julian the Apostate. Hillel II was the "Nasi," or president, of the Sanhedrin between 320 - 385 C.E.

The Creation Calendar is not the Rabbinic Calendar, but is a retro-calculated and forward calculated calendar based on a precise scientific knowledge of the complex motions of the moon. The Creation Calendar implements the rules followed by Israel from the time it was established as a nation under Moses in 1437 B.C.E., until the time that Hillel II changed times and laws during the reign of Julian the Apostate in 359 C.E.

The Creation Calendar at TorahCalendar.com serves as an electronic eyewitness for determining when any new moon is potentially visible in Jerusalem. This becomes especially useful when the new moon cannot be sighted in Jerusalem due to smog, haze, pollution or clouds. Its true potential value, however, is that it accurately reconstructs the new moon as seen from Jerusalem in the historical past and far off into the distant future. It is for those desiring to observe the appointed times of  יהוה according to stringent scientific, historical and Scriptural requirements. The moon has been established as a faithful witness for this purpose (Psalms 89:37).


Other Scientific Considerations

Comparing accurate ephemeris results against observations of eclipses recorded in ancient times, scientists have determined that the earth's daily rotational rate is slowing down. This is caused by tidal friction resulting in the gradual transfer of kinetic energy from the earth to the moon. Using the accepted coefficient of lunar tidal acceleration value of -25.858 ± 0.003"/century², the program driving TorahCalendar.com corrects for these effects. To find the time of day (Universal Time) for any date in history using astronomical ephemedrides, a time correction known as Delta T must be used to correct for this gradual change in earth's rotational rate. Delta T is determined by subtracting Universal Time from the theoretical uniform Terrestrial Time scale (TT). Practical realization for determining precise TT became possible beginning in the 1950's with the invention and refinement of the modern Cesium Atomic Clock.

In the Creation Calendar, the new moon is indicated on the day of the Rosh Chodesh - the first visible crescent which follows after the actual astronomical conjunction. Each new moon is calculated from its precise topocentric relation to the sun. The angular distance between the sun and moon, called the Arc of Light (ARCL), and the amount of twilight after sundown, known as the Arc of Vision (ARCV), are used to determine if the moon's crescent will be visible from Jerusalem for any given evening.


History of the Calendar

The Talmud records that in first century Judea, the calendar used during the Second Temple period was based on the actual observation of the first visible crescent of the new moon as seen from Jerusalem. The first century Judean calendar also placed Day 15 of Month 1 on or after the Hebrew Day of the spring equinox. The Babylonians, Persians, Assyrians and Greeks also began their months with the first visible crescent of the new moon, however they did not always intercalate in the same way the Judeans did. For example, it is possible to determine from the double dated Elephantine Letters, with Persian and Egyptian dates, that the Persians did not intercalate like the Judeans between 458 - 351 B.C.E. For in these years, the Persians placed Day 1 of Month 1 after the day of the spring equinox.

Expulsion of the Judeans in the Reign of the Emperor Hadrian (134 C.E.): "How Heraclius turned the Judeans out of Jerusalem." - Fac-simile of a Miniature in the "Histoire des Empereurs," Manuscript of the 15th Century, in the Library of the Arsenal, Paris.

Sometime after the dispersion in 134 C.E., when the Judeans were exiled from Judea, they were forced to rely on calculation of the new moon or on local observation where they resettled. As Rabbinic Judaism departed from the true worship of Elohim, the Rabbinic Calendar was implemented in 359 C.E. by Hillel II based on the 19-year Metonic cycle of the Greek astronomer Meton of Athens.

The Rabbinic Calendar, still in use today, has pre-determined month lengths not intended to align with the Rosh Chodesh - the first visible crescent new moon. Its other flaws include manmade rules of postponement for certain appointed times and the failure to intercalate based on the spring equinox. The Rabbinic Calendar did not exist and was not in use at any time in Israel's history prior to 359 C.E. The Creation Calendar of  יהוה as handed down from Moses was used by  יהושע the Messiah and the temple priests of His time.

Some scholars have mistaken the modern Rabbinic Calendar for the original Creation Calendar, attempting to calculate it back into the first century, complete with its many defects. Such error leads them to the wrong conclusions regarding the chronology of the death and resurrection of  יהושע the Messiah, as well as incorrect prophetical interpretations.

The Roman Julian Calendar was a fixed solar calendar locked with the seasons having no relationship with the moon. It existed up until October 4, 1582 C.E. (the "10 Day Gap") when it was replaced in Rome by the current Gregorian Calendar named after Pope Gregory XIII. The Gregorian Calendar is a reform of the Julian Calendar and is the most widely used calendar in the world today. However, the Gregorian Calendar is of pagan origin. This is evidenced by the pagan names given for its months, its days of the week and its festivals. It is a solar calendar not based on the movements of the moon. Therefore, the Gregorian Calendar is of no relevance with respect to Scriptural times and dates.

In summary, neither the modern Rabbinic Calendar nor any other calendar supports the proper observance of the appointed times of the Creator. Only the restored Creation Calendar which was in use when  יהושע the Messiah was last on earth, is the true calendar of the Creator. Using the best available lunar and planetary motion theories coupled with modern computers, Torahcalendar.com provides the first accurate measuring timepiece for studying historic and future events revealed in the Scriptures.

Deuteronomy 29:29

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